Featured Articles

  1. System-Level LO Phase Noise Model For Phased Arrays With Distributed Phase-Locked Loops

    By building upon known phase-locked loop modeling methods, and an assessment of correlated vs. uncorrelated contributors, an approach to track distributed PLL contributions across frequency offsets is presented.

  2. Distributed Antenna System (DAS) For IoT, Cellular And Other Wireless Applications

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has continued to grow at a rapid rate in recent years. With the connectivity of more and more devices, it’s more important than ever that these devices can connect, communicate and meet the needs that users covet. Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) are used to provide strong and reliable wireless connectivity in location where connectivity is a problem with standard wireless routers or cellular connectivity. This application note discusses the use of DAS for IoT, cellular and other wireless applications, and the benefits it can offer.

  3. Frequency And Phase Settling Time Measurements On PLL Circuits

    Frequency hopping is one of the most common methods to avoid interference and to increase security. This application note provides basic information about frequency and phase settling time measurements and how the measurement is implemented inside modern phase noise analyzers, complete with measurement examples and explanations.

  4. Power Amplifier MMICs For mmWave 5G

    This article looks at the semiconductor process and SMT packaging options for the realisation of power amplifier (PA) integrated circuits (ICs) operating at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies. It also presents examples of 5G mmWave SMT packaged PA designs.

  5. Top Design Tips For The Automotive RF Front End

    With the astounding evolution of the automotive ecosystem, complicated computer systems are used to connect the vehicle and people to the outside world. This article examines the biggest challenges encountered when designing a connected vehicle and offers some solutions.

  6. Countering Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS)

    The small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) market has experienced exponential growth with the advent of brushless electric motors and high energy density lithium batteries. This means that the average person can shoot aerial photographs and video, capture extreme sports moments, and enter the sport flying hobby with aircraft that are electronically stabilized and considerably less expensive to own and operate. However, this also increases potential for weapon platforms, privacy violations, and interference.

  7. Optimizing RF And Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range

    Dynamic range specification determines whether or not low-level signals will be visible in the presence of large signals and therefore is one of the most important performance figures for a spectrum analyzer. 

  8. RF/Microwave DUT De-embedding

    When analyzing a complex RF signal, characterizing a fast clock, or debugging a high-speed interface, it is important to observe the real signal and not artifacts of the test setup like loading or reflections. The process of removing non-ideal signal path effects is called de-embedding. This application note describes how to perform high-precision RF and microwave tests requiring de-embedding.

  9. Design Of A High-Efficiency Broadband GaN HEMT Doherty Amplifier For New-Generation Cellular Transmitters

    Next-generation 4G/5G telecommunication systems require power amplifiers (PAs) to operate with high efficiency over a wide frequency range to provide multiband and multi-standard concurrent operation. This application note describes the design of an innovative Doherty amplifier architecture using 200-W high-efficiency broadband 1.8-2.7 GHz GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology, which achieved average efficiencies of 50-60 percent for output powers up to 100 W and significantly reduced the cost, size, and power consumption of the transmitters. The designers used the NI AWR Design Environment platform, specifically Microwave Office circuit design software.

  10. The Importance Of Filters In Point-To-Point Microwave Cellular Backhaul Networks

    To satisfy this massive backhaul demand and maintain high data rates without holes in coverage, wireless carriers are adding large numbers of micro and pico cells to fill in the gaps in conjunction with traditional macro cells. In traditional point-to-point microwave links, bands from 3.5 through 86 GHz are allocated and can achieve data rates of several gigabits per second. This application note discusses the importance of filters in the use of point-to-point microwave cellular backhaul networks.