Optical modulators and detectors have been characterized and calibrated over the years, but less attention has been given to the optimization of converter measurement uncertainties in a practical user context. Since frequency dependencies of various error mechanisms are different, the wide bandwidths could require procedural changes for optimum results. This paper explores these characterization and calibration processes, as well as the net uncertainties, and their impact on example eye diagram generation.
The characterization of microwave networks requires discriminating between forward and backward traveling waves. Unfortunately no directional device is perfect, leading to potentially dramatic measurement errors. In this note we show that return loss and VSWR measurements are greatly complicated by the finite performance of the directional device used to measure the reflected power.
For several years, automobile makers and government agencies have sought ways to improve safety on roadways and effectively manage traffic flow. As wireless communication systems are advancing, the vision of automobiles talking to each other and to roadside units is becoming a reality.
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology is an integral part of 3GPP E-UTRA long term evolution (LTE). As part of MIMO, beamforming is also used in LTE. This article provides a brief summary of the transmission modes in LTE and describes the beamforming measurements for base stations and user equipment.
At the beginning of 2015, around 1,200 satellites were fully operational in orbit around the planet, half of which were communication satellites. This number of satellites is expected to expand at a progressive rate within the next years. To have success in developing satellite projects, reliable testing needs to be done at each stage. This application note focuses on RF component and module testing of satellite communication payloads using R&S instruments at pre-launch levels.