Featured Articles

  1. Generating Multiple Phase Coherent Signals – Aligned In Phase And Time

    This application note details how to generate phase coherent signals and explains the best methods for calibrating the relative phases and timing between the individual channels. Various measurements of phase stability over time for different RF frequencies are also presented.

  2. Millimeter-Wave Beamforming: Antenna Array Design Choices And Characterization

    This paper dicusses fundamentals of beamforming technology, including signals, antennas, and current transceiver architectures. The paper included calculation methods for radiation patterns and some simulations results, as well as showing some real-world measurement results for small linear arrays.

  3. Wideband Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation And Analysis

    A set of multiple instruments is required to generate wideband digital modulated signals found in the V-band and above. This application note describes how to use R&S products for V-band signal generation and analysis up to 500 MHz modulation bandwidth, and how to expand modulation bandwidth up to 2 GHz. 

  4. Outphasing, Envelope, And Doherty Transmitter Test And Measurement

    Meeting the requirements for energy efficiency of RF frontends can become challenging at high operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G. A solution is a group of transmitter RFFE architectures whose signal output is constructed from two or more efficiently generated components is put in effect to enable distortion to be completely eliminated. This application note focuses on the capabilities of multi-channel signal synthesis setups within the R&S®SMW200A, in combination with the R&S®FSW analyzer to enable measurement and development of energy efficient frontends.

  5. Fundamentals Of An RF Design

    This white paper covers the fundamentals of designing an RF communication system, including coverage on the transmission medium, wave propagation, free space path loss, transmit and receive portion, link design and other key components. The article will also discuss the required test equipment and considerations during the design, development and verification processes.

  6. EMC Compliance Testing: Improve Throughput With Time Domain Scanning

    EMC testing requires detailed and exacting methodologies to ensure accurately measured emissions. To grow revenue without adding expense of new test site installations, companies must streamline the EMC product test cycle to maximize the throughput of their existing compliance facilities. 

  7. Harmonic Injection Doubles Ultra-Wideband TWT RF Output

    Using harmonic injection on an ultra-wideband TWT is a relatively new concept that works to cancel the naturally-generated second (and/or third) harmonic within the TWT, and therefore recover the available beam power back into the low-end fundamental frequencies. 

  8. The Road To 5G

    Meting 5G requirements may seem daunting, but simulation already can be used to develop understanding and explore innovative solutions. FEKO offers comprehensive solutions for device and base station antenna design, while WinProp will determine the requirements for successful network deployment.

  9. Using Microwave And Millimeter Wave Radiometers

    Microwave radiometric sensors are devices used to detect electromagnetic energy. This white paper expresses the reasoning for certain radiometer calibrations and other modes of operation in regards to the sensor’s subsystems.

  10. Choosing Blocking Capacitors — It’s More Than Just Values

    Capacitors often are used to create filters, generate DC protection, and build bypass networks. This article discusses how to improve RF performance by using fewer capacitors that block DC and pass AC current, and how to choose these capacitors based on real world performance.