White Papers & Application Notes

  1. Practical Tips On WiMAX Field Measurements
    By Anritsu Company
    Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) digital communications technology is based on wireless transmission methods defined by the IEEE-802.16 air interface standard. IEEE 802.16-2004 (fixed WiMAX), is optimized for fixed and nomadic broadband wireless access to homes and businesses. This article focuses on the measurement procedures for fixed WiMAX networks and presents practical field measurement tips and procedures to help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct measurements on WiMAX networks
  2. Practical Tips On WCDMA Measurements
    By Anritsu Company
    While GPRS is considered the first step in enhancing the GSM core network in preparation for EDGE and 3G, WCDMA is a 3G technology according to the 3GPP standard. It is the digital access system for the UMTS network and is today considered one of the world’s leading 3G wireless standards. This article presents measurement tips and procedures which will help a field-based network technician or RF engineer conduct Node B measurements on WCDMA access networks...
  3. Practical Tips On Measuring Interference
    By utilizing the ISM (Industrial-Scientific-Medical) frequency bands, the wireless industry has been able to exploit the increasing popularity of unlicensed communication systems. However, their unlicensed nature carries with it the seeds of serious signal interference problems. Such ISM system designs are type-approved but are then installed by unlicensed owners or contractors. These conditions sometimes lead to signal configurations that unintentionally interfere. The objective of this article is to present measurement tips and procedures which will help a field technician measure signal interference in operating communications systems. By Anritsu Company
  4. Mixer VNA Measurements
    Frequency translated devices are key components of any communication system, whether they are up-converters, down-converters or basic mixers. Since their input and output frequencies are different, they require special features and setups for Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurements. With the frequency offset capability of today’s VNAs, where the source and receiver are independently synthesized, such measurements are possible and require a much less complicated setup. With special calibration techniques, vector error corrected measurements are possible for added accuracy, and absolute phase, as well as group delay information.
  5. Millimeter-wave Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) Measurements

    This application note discusses the complications encountered in IMD measurements (set up complexity and hardware availability being the two main issues), and how Anritsu’s ME7838A family of broadband vector network analyzers (VNAs) can be used to make millimeter-wave measurements easier and more streamlined.

  6. Measuring LTE Modulation Quality Over-The-Air With A Handheld Instrument
    This article presents a simpler and faster method of measuring modulation quality—making the measurement over-the-air with a handheld instrument. This method is based on the fact that control channels do not use spatial multiplexing or beamforming because they have to operate over the entire cell, including at the cell edges. Over-the-air measurements of LTE modulation quality are not intended to replace direct-connect measurements because direct-connect measurements are more accurate and comprehensive. However, over-the-air measurements are much faster and more convenient so they provide a valuable tool to help meet the challenge of delivering seamless LTE service.
  7. Measurement Of Radar Cross Section Using The VNA Master Handheld VNA
    This application note describes how a modern battery-powered/portable microwave vector network analyzer with time domain gating can make it easy to do RCS tests on the flight line or in the field.
  8. Low Noise Amplifier Testing Challenges

    Designers, modelers, and manufacturers of RF and microwave frequency amplifiers used in applications such as radar, wireless communication, or high-speed digital communication systems at either the wafer-level or as a packaged part face many test challenges. Higher performance requirements in the face of tighter budgets and more demands on test engineer time result in the need for test systems which provide technical leadership while remaining cost effective, easy to use, and flexible.

  9. Fundamentals Of Interference In Wireless Networks
    As wireless systems proliferate worldwide, the number one enemy of wireless systems designers and service providers is signal interference. Interference hampers coverage and capacity, and limits the effectiveness of both new and existing systems. It is an unavoidable fact that wireless communications systems must coexist in extremely complicated signal environments. This article presents the subject of interference and its degrading effects on the performance of wireless networks. It provides a brief theory of operation of communications receivers and antennae, as well as instructions on how to locate and identify an interfering signal. By Anritsu Company
  10. Distance To Fault Measurements For Cable And Antenna Installation And Maintenance
    By Anritsu Company
    Distance To Fault (DTF) is a performance verification and failure analysis tool used for antenna and transmission line service and maintenance. It uses the Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) measurement technique, a transmission line fault isolation method which precisely identifies signal path degradation for coax and waveguide transmission lines. This paper explores the dual role of Distance To Fault in predicting future failure conditions and isolating existing problems...