White Papers & Application Notes

  1. Vector Network Analyzer Primer
    A vector network analyzer is a much more powerful analyzer than a scalar network analyzer. The major difference is that a VNA adds the ability to measure phase as well as amplitude. With phase measurements comes scattering, or S-parameters, which are a shorthand method for identifying forward and reverse transmission and reflection characteristics. This article provides a summary description of the operation and capabilities of a vector network analyzer (VNA), including general considerations of front panel operation and measurement methods. By Anritsu Company
  2. Using Handheld Spectrum Analyzers To Find Hidden Signals
    Placing a bug near a high level signal can be a very effective way to make it very difficult to detect. There are several potential reasons for this. Most handheld spectrum analyzers exhibit fairly poor phase noise characteristics. These phase noise skirts are very effective at hiding a transmitter. Failure to have sufficiently narrow resolution bandwidth filters makes it impossible to detect signals close to a strong carrier. The ability to sweep quickly also provides major benefit since you can to a wide sweep without taking a long time. For example, you can use the Anritsu MS2722C to get a 9 GHz sweep in less than 0.5 seconds. Those limitations in many instruments make them ineffective for finding this sort of hidden transmitter. By Anritsu Company
  3. Using Distance-To-PIM (DTP) And Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Trace Overlay To Speed Site Repair

    Using Anritsu’s Distance-to-PIM (DTP) technology can dramatically reduce the time needed for resolving PIM issues at macro sites and inbuilding systems. Technicians are able to use real-time trace overlay on the PIM Master to more clearly understand the displays and compare PIM fault locations to known “PIM markers” and known reflections in the system. Together, these features simplify the Passive Intermodulation (PIM) troubleshooting process, enabling faster site repairs.

  4. Understanding SDRs And Their RF Test Requirements
    By Anritsu Company
    Evaluating tactical software-defined radios (SDRs) poses no small challenges for test engineers. Even in just considering the analog hardware attributes of these radios, a test engineer is faced with enough bandwidth for multiple communications standards, the capability of transmitting and receiving signals at high data rates, and the capability for simultaneous operation of multiple radio channels...
  5. Time Domain Measurements Using Vector Network Analyzers
    Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) are very powerful and flexible measuring instruments. Their basic capability is to measure the S-parameters of an RF or microwave device and display the result in the frequency domain. This provides valuable data for the design engineer to develop a design and for the production engineer to substantiate the performance of the device or system.
  6. Technical Note: Microwave Connector Thread Gaging
    When making a microwave connection with a coaxial connector, a good ground connection must be achieved...
  7. Technical Note: Custom Measurements And Analysis Using MATLAB On Signature
    Signature is a combined high performance Spectrum Analyzer for characterizing RF signals and a high performance Vector Signal Analyzer for characterizing digitally modulated signals...
  8. Signal Integrity Measurement Challenges

    Cloud computing and mobile internet services are causing large increases in network traffic. The instantaneous traffic rates at internet data centers have reached 1 Tbit/s and device interconnects are becoming transmission bottlenecks. Assuring signal integrity at high data rates while minimizing cost requires closing the loop of simulation and measurement during the design stage.

  9. Radio Frequency Interference in Hospitals
    Hospitals are replete with sources of interference and many applications that require the ultimate in reliability to assure patient safety. Patient telemetry systems, cellular telephones, bluetooth devices, security radio systems, police and paramedic radios, Wi-Fi, microwave ovens, cordless telephone systems, light dimmers, fax machines, floor buffers, elevators, elevator controls, nearby cellular base stations, broadcast transmitters, and ultrasound systems all contribute to the harsh RF environment in hospitals.
  10. Pulsed S-Parameter Measurements
    Many devices, particularly power devices, were not designed to operate continuously or with CW signals. When devices are being tested on-wafer, this becomes even truer since thermal resistance is often greatly increased. In these cases, S-parameter measurements must often be performed in a pulsed environment. The objective of this article is to provide an understanding of performing general S-parameter measurements with a vector network analyzer (VNA) across a range of pulsed conditions for both RF and microwave/mm-wave measurement applications.