White Papers & Application Notes

  1. Understanding PIM (Passive Intermodulation) — 28 Page Guide

    New PIM guide available from Anritsu. Learn what Passive Intermodulation is and its impact on cellular systems, as well as how contractors, engineers or field technicians can test for its presence. Content includes causes, testing, and prevention.

  2. Practical eNodeB Transmitter Measurements for LTE and TD-LTE Systems Using MIMO

    This application note explains how to troubleshoot an eNodeB using a spectrum analyzer with LTE over-the-air (OTA) measurements.

  3. Passive Intermodulation (PIM) In In-Building Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS)

    The probability of harmful passive intermodulation (PIM) increases when mobile operators upgrade their existing in-building distributed antenna systems (DAS). Operators are able to reduce PIM interference and maximize site performance by using meticulous construction techniques with low PIM components. This application note discusses insertion loss calculations, and the impact of insertion loss on PIM performance in DAS.

  4. Measuring Cellular Repeaters Using The MT8220T BTS Master

    Many cellular users have experienced something like a “dead zone” when using cellular data. This usually occurs when signals transmitted from cellular base stations are severely attenuated due to obstructions such as large buildings, dense vegetation, hills or mountains, etc. Sometimes buildings have materials used in construction that absorb the downlink signals. The area blocked by the obstacles can be referred to as “radio shadow” and reduces the area coverage of the base station. This application discusses the solution to  using of a repeater or bi-directional amplifier.

  5. Annihilating Interference In A Sea Of Signals

    This case study discusses how industry collaboration helped meet the challenges of in-building interference detection and mitigation across jurisdictional and corporate boundaries.

  6. Understanding Cable And Antenna Analysis

    A problematic base station can be replaced, but a cable and antenna system is not so easy to replace. This article covers fundamentals of cable and antenna analysis measurements: return loss, cable loss, and distance-to-fault (DTF).

  7. White Paper: Troubleshooting Passive Intermodulation Problems In The Field
    It is broadly understood that Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is a formidable issue within the cellular industry. This type of test has been in use for 15 years or more within the OEM industry throughout the world. As extra cellular transmitters and modulation formats are commissioned into service in new or existing sites, the statistical performance can appear to change dramatically. Ultimately, this can result in poor site/sector performance and reduced coverage, and this is why testing for PIM is now required in the field. The purpose of this article is to introduce the troubleshooting methods currently used in the cellular construction industry as well as to offer some background knowledge of Passive Inter-Modulation (PIM).By Nicholas Cannon, Anritsu Company
  8. White Paper: Introduction To Mobile WiMAX Test Measurement Solution
    Installing the MX269010A Mobile WiMAX Measurement Software in the MS269xA Signal Analyzer supports Mobile WiMAX modulation analysis. Moreover, adding the MS269xA-020 Vector Modulation Generator and MX269905 Mobile WiMAX IQproducer options, supports Tx test of the amplifier and Tx/Rx test of SS/BS with one unit.
  9. White Paper: BTS System Line Sweep And PIM Testing
    In this current exciting cellular industry, cellular system performance requirements are at an all time high. We have all experienced dropped calls and poor quality connections while using our cellular devices and these frustrating performance problems directly contribute to subscriber churn, sometimes to a level exceeding 30% of the overall reasons a subscriber decides to change service providers. By Anritsu Company
  10. Understanding VNA Calibration

    The concept of calibration is presented and discussed in detail in this 36-page guide from Anritsu. Specific topics covered include how to configure the VNA for calibration, types of calibration and calibration kits. A minimal amount of calibration mathematics and theory is also covered.