Feature Articles

  1. Optimizing Performance And Cost For Millimeter-Wave Signal Analysis

    Millimeter-wave systems considered for next generation commercial wireless require test instrumentation that keeps pace with the performance requirements of these systems. The purchase of signal analyzers with basic performance requires careful review of the analyzer’s performance specifications and a fundamental understanding of the challenges when making millimeter-wave measurements. This application note discusses recent advances in millimeter-wave signal analysis and instrumentation that are optimized for high performance and costs that are more in line with traditional microwave solutions.

  2. Using IEC 60601-1 For Maximum Patient And Operator Protection

    The IEC 60601-1 states maximum requirements concerning the protection from electric shock for medical applications in which patients and operators can get into direct contact with electrical equipment and systems. This white paper shows how supplier know-how can contribute towards the development of IEC 60601-1-compliant electrical equipment and systems based on the example of the ODU plastic circular connector series ODU MEDI-SNAP®.

  3. IoT Antenna Questions Answered

    This download offers answers for commonly asked questions on antennas used in IoT applications, including what the proper grounding plane is for certain antennas, and why antenna length is important to reception.

  4. 5 Antenna Decisions When Designing IoT Devices

    This download offers five considerations for what antennas to select in new designs for IoT devices.

  5. Design And Physical Realization Of Phased-Array Antennas For MIMO And Beam-Steering Applications

    A phased-array antenna is made up of multiple individual radiating elements and each is fed with an RF signal controlled through phase shifters in such a way that the radio waves from the separate antennas are added together to increase the radiation. The advantages inherent in phased-array systems will enable major new commercial applications, including 5G communications and automotive radar, to exploit the millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum. This white paper explores basic phased-array theory and the design considerations behind next-generation antenna systems, and examines the new capabilities recently added to electronic design automation (EDA) software such as the NI AWR Design Environment platform.

  6. Aperture Tuning: An Essential Technology In 5G Smartphones

    Antenna aperture tuning is essential to enable smartphones to operate efficiently over the ever-increasing range of RF frequency bands and support the transition to 5G. Smartphones need more antennas to support growing RF requirements such as new 5G bands, MIMO, and carrier aggregation (CA), but there is less space for these antennas due to changes in smartphone industrial design. As a result, antennas are becoming smaller, potentially reducing antenna efficiency and bandwidth. Aperture tuning compensates for this problem by allowing antennas to be tuned to operate efficiently on multiple bands and increasing Tx and Rx performance by 3 dB or more.

  7. Integrated Circuits (ICs) And Component EMC Testing

    Those who produce IC products for demanding electromagnetic environments must take precautionary measures to test and pass all regulatory EMI and safety requirements. This white paper explores these standards and safety requirements and offers guidance for ensuring that IC products meet them.

  8. Understanding Phase Versus Temperature Behavior

    It can be difficult to understand the combination of complex microwave transmission concepts with complex material properties, especially in phase stability versus temperature. This app note will help readers understand this phenomenon, starting with the basics of phase length and phase delay.

  9. Using Solid State Switching For Next Generation Wireless Test Applications

    This article will explore some of the key differences between the types of switches used in wireless test applications. Switch matrix configurations will be discussed, and a real-world switch matrix for a high-volume telecom test application described in detail.

  10. Selecting Automotive-Grade Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors In Electric Vehicles

    The worldwide electric vehicle (EV) market is exploding in demand and mainstream adoption as governments push for fuel economy improvements and automotive companies look for new market opportunities. According to Forbes, “by 2020, EVs are likely to cost the same as conventional fuel powered equivalents."