Featured Articles

  1. Basic RF Amplifier Measurements Using The R&S ZNB Vector Network Analyzer And "SMARTerCal"

    Rohde & Schwarz’s family of ZNB vector network analyzers (VNAs) is ideal for analyzing an RF amplifier’s small signal linear and nonlinear performance. This app note demonstrates how to configure and use the R&S® ZNB vector network analyzer.

  2. Emerging Communication Technologies Enabling The Internet Of Things

    Some connected things requiring global coverage and/or mobility will use cellular technologies, but most IoT devices will use noncellular technologies, sharing frequencies in unlicensed bands to communicate with each other and with IoT applications. 

  3. Pre-5G-NR Signal Generation And Analysis

    This application note offers instruction on how to use Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and analyzers for testing early 5G New Radio components, chipsets, and devices. These solutions are able to provide a single user interface for signal generation and analysis configuration, flexible OFDM configuration, and user defined modulation schemes including complex scenarios.

  4. Accurate And Fast Power Integrity Measurements

    With the increasing demands on power distribution networks, smaller DC rails are increasingly in high demand, as well as proliferation of rails that ensure clean power reaches the pins of each integrated circuit. Most oscilloscopes are challenged with measuring ripple, noise, and transients on today’s low-voltage DC power rails. An adequate bandwidth is required to see harmonics of fast edges and higher frequency sources that can be coupled on power rails. The active R&S®RT-ZPR20 power rail probe is specifically designed to measure small AC characteristics of DC rails.

  5. Verifying Power Integrity For DDR Memories

    One of the key challenges for maintaining signal integrity with DDR memories is to keep signal integrity in the presence of power and ground rail fluctuations. The ripple and noise on the power distribution network can negatively impact clock and data jitter, which has a direct impact on data transfer performance. The R&S®RT-ZPR20 power rail probe is a specialized oscilloscope probe for very low-noise measurements on power rails that is with integrated offset, allowing for zoom in on the ripple sitting on top of the power rail voltage.

  6. Introduction To AA-Series Field Generating Systems

    AR’s AA-series of field generating systems are designed to help generate low-level electric fields in the 18 – 40 GHz frequency range. These systems are able to produce field strengths up to 50 V/m, therefore, saving on the use of unnecessary power and costs. Composed of a solid-state amplifier and antenna in a single housing, this low-cost, highly reliable solution can then be paired with a rack-mountable power and RF routing unit for simple use.

  7. High-Power RF Pulse Generation And Measurement

    Until recently, Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) technology has been the only available option for pulsed field generation. AR now offers high-power solid state pulsed amplifiers at various frequency ranges and output power levels to meet several standards. This white paper presents some of the key features and benefits of AR’s new line of amplifiers, and how to generate high speed and accurate peak RF power measurement capabilities that are ideal for EMC testing, manufacturing testing/troubleshooting, amplifier design/development, and research.

  8. Antenna Basics

    This white paper describes the basic functionality of antennas. Starting with Hertz's Antenna model followed by a short introduction to the fundamentals of wave propagation, the important general characteristics of an antenna and its associated parameters are explained.

  9. How Accurate Is TDOA Geolocation?

    Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA), also called multilateration, is a technique for RF emitter geolocation using three or more receivers with algorithms to locate a signal source from the different arrival times at the receivers. This article explains factors that can have an impact on overall TDOA accuracy.

  10. Machine Learning And RF Spectrum Intelligence Gathering

    To classify a signal in RF spectrum intelligence gathering, the user must recognize a specific pattern associated with the modulation. Additionally, to recognize a remarkable signal present in received data, the pattern must be distinguished from the noise. Pattern recognition is something that the human brain is good at, but it is more desirable to automate these applications for efficiency and to avoid errors cause by human fatigue.