Frequency deviation (fDEV) — the peak frequency change, above and below the unmodulated carrier frequency — is a critical parameter of FM. Therefore, it is imperative to accurately measure fDEV. The Bessel Null Method is a simple way to verify fDEV accuracy — in a way that is not dependent on the fDEV specs of any signal generator — with excellent precision and high confidence.
These SMT PIN and limiter diodes offer broadband performance through the X-band. There are seven different models available with variations on electrical parameters and performance. Each device is RoHS compliant and is available in a small, SOD 323 footprint.
The phase-locked oscillator (PLO) is a versatile, low-noise signal source that is available in different architectures to suit different applications and environments. This article reviews the basics of PLOs and describes some of the most popular types.